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Sindrome Metabolica - Indice delle voci


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Patologie cardiovascolari

Global left ventricular performance in non-diabetic non-hypertensive metabolic syndrome adults.

Sliem H, et al.   World J Cardiol 2011;26:48

(The early identification of isolated metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive adults may be an indication that aggressive preventive measures should not be postponed until overt obesity, hypertension or diabetes mellitus has developed)

Metabolic syndrome does not impose greater atrial fibrillation risk in elderly hypertensive patients.

Hu YF, et al. Acta Cardiol 2010;65:653

(MS does not impose more AF risk in elderly hypertensive patients. Aging, heart failure, LVH, and drugs used may play more important roles)

Association of circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin with metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease in patients with various coronary risk factors.

Kajikawa Y, et al.   Int Heart J 2011;52:17  (free article)

(This study disclosed factors associated with the increase in serum leptin and adiponectin. Serum levels of leptin may be associated positively with MetS, whereas adiponectin levels are associated negatively with MetS and CHD, even in patients with various coronary risk factors)

The Relation of Diabetes, Impaired Fasting Blood Glucose, and Insulin Resistance to Left Ventricular Structure and Function in African Americans. The Jackson Heart Study.

Fox ER, et al.   Diabetes Care 2011;34:507

(In the largest study of its kind in a community-based cohort of African Americans, we found a relation of Fasting Blood Glucose category and Insulin Resistance to Left Ventricular structure and function)

Impaired coronary microvascular endothelial function in men with metabolic syndrome.

Teragawa H, et al.   World J Cardiol 2010;26:205 (Free article)

(Coronary endothelial dysfunction was present at the level of resistance vessels but not conduit vessels in the metabolic syndrome patients included in the study)

Progression of Segment-Specific Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Young Adults (from the Bogalusa Heart Study).

Nguyen QM, et al.   Am J Cardiol 2011;107:114

Association between meat consumption and carotid intima-media thickness in korean adults with metabolic syndrome.

Oh SM, et al.   J Prev Med Public Health 2010;43:486  (Free Article)

(The work suggest  that a higher meat consumption may be associated with a higher carotid IMT in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. The frequent meat consumption (≥5 servings/week), compared with the others, was associated with a higher carotid IMTmax only in men with metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to explore optimal meat consumption in people with specific medical conditions)

The Fat-Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) gene, physical activity, and risk of incident cardiovascular events in white women.

Ahmad T, et al.   Am Heart J 2010;160:1163

(Carriers of the Fat-Mass and Obesity-Associated gene  risk allele have an increased risk of CVD mediated by BMI. There appears to be an interaction with physical activity, such that this risk increase is only in less-active women)

Effect of the Metabolic Syndrome and Hyperuricemia on Outcome in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease (from the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study).

Brodov Y, et al.   Am J Cardiol 2010;106:1717

(Hyperuricemia is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in patients with MS)

Association between visceral adipose tissue area and coronary plaque morphology assessed by CT angiography.

Ohashi N, et al   JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2010;3:908

(Increased Visceral Adipose Tissue area was significantly associated with noncalified coronary plaques burden and vulnerable characteristics identified by CTA. Our findings may explain the excessive cardiovascular risk in patients with visceral adiposity, and support the potential role of computed tomography angiography to improve risk stratification in such patients)

Association between visceral adipose tissue area and coronary plaque morphology assessed by CT angiography.

Ohashi N, et al   JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2010;3:908

(Increased Visceral Adipose Tissue area was significantly associated with noncalified coronary plaques burden and vulnerable characteristics identified by CTA. Our findings may explain the excessive cardiovascular risk in patients with visceral adiposity, and support the potential role of computed tomography angiography to improve risk stratification in such patients)

Usefulness of apolipoprotein b/apolipoprotein a-I ratio to predict coronary artery disease independent of the metabolic syndrome in african americans.

Enkhmaa B, et al.   Am J Cardiol 2010;106:1264

(The apoB/apoA-I ratio differed across ethnicities and was associated with presence of the MetabolicSyndrome in both groups. Among African Americans, an elevated apoB/apoA-I ratio independently predicted a greater risk of CAD)

Risk factors for atrial fibrillation: Not always severe heart disease, not always so 'lonely'.

Rosiak M, et al.   Cardiol J 2010;17:437

(The work present the current knowledge about the relationship between AF occurrence and the following disorders: metabolic syndrome and its components, sleep apnea and inflammation)

Metabolic syndrome and incidence of atrial fibrillation among blacks and whites in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

Chamberlain AM, et al.   Am Heart J 2010;159:850

(In this large cohort, the Metabolic Syndrome and most of its components were associated with a higher risk of AF in both blacks and whites. Given the high prevalence of the MS, strategies to prevent its development or to control individual components may reduce the burden of AF)

Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with syndrome X.

Susam I, et al.   Acta Cardiol 2010;65:217

(Serum adiponectin levels were lower in patients with syndrome X, and these low adiponectin concentrations may cause endothelial dysfunction. Thus, patients with a marked drop in adiponectin levels may be considered at high risk for future coronary events and may therefore benefit from additional pharmacological treatment)

Association of combination of lipid parameters with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atheriosclerosis).

Paramsothy P, et al.   J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1034

(Combined hyperlipemia and simple hypercholesterolemia were associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in a healthy multiethnic population)

Resting heart rate and metabolic syndrome in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease in bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation 2 diabetes (BARI 2D) trial.

Rana JS, et al.   Prev Cardiol 2010;13:112

(In patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, the presence of higher resting heart rate is associated with increasing number of criteria of Metabolic Syndrome and the presence of ventricular dysfunction)

Clinical predictors of culprit plaque rupture assessed on intravascular ultrasound in acute coronary syndrome.

Kato M, et al.   Circ J 2010;74:1936

(Abdominal obesity and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level are the characteristics of metabolic syndrome that seem to be the key factors for vulnerable plaque rupture with coronary compensatory enlargement)

Pericardial fat is associated with prevalent atrial fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study.

Thanassoulis G, et al.   Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2010;3:345

(Pericardial fat is associated with prevalent atrial fibrillation even after adjustment for AF risk factors, including body mass index)

Comparison of rates of progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus versus those with the metabolic syndrome.

Bayturan O, et al.   Am J Cardiol 2010;105:1735

(Despite having fewer individual risk factors, diabetes mellitus is associated with greater plaque progression and more constrictive remodeling than MS. This finding highlights the deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus on the arterial wall independent of its associated metabolic abnormalities)

Metabolic syndrome increases carotid artery stiffness: the Northern Manhattan Study.

Della-Morte D, et al.   Int J Stroke 2010;5:138

(The metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with increased carotid artery stiffness in a multiethnic population. Increased carotid artery stiffness may, in part, explain a high risk of stroke among individuals with the metabolic syndrome)

Variable association between components of the metabolic syndrome and electrocardiographic abnormalities in Korean adults.

Kim HK, et al.   Korean J Intern Med 2010;25:174

(Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with ECG abnormalities, especially ischemic ECG findings, in Koreans. The association between each component of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities varied according to age and sex)

Diastolic dysfunction in diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: promising potential for diagnosis and prognosis.

von Bibra H, St John Sutton M.   Diabetologia 2010;53:1033

(Diastolic dysfunction reflects the structural and metabolic milieu in the myocardium, and may allow targeted therapeutic interventions to modulate cardiac metabolism to prevent heart failure in insulin resistance and diabetes)

Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction in Healthy Humans .

Romero-Corral A, et al.   J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:662

(In normal-weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction)

Arterial Structure and Function After Recovery From the Metabolic Syndrome: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Koskinen J, et al.   Circulation 2010;121:392

(Recovery from the Metabolic Syndrome was associated with positive effects on vascular properties during a 6-year follow-up period of young adults)

Effect of Obesity on Left Ventricular Mass and Systolic Function in Patients With Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis (a Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis [SEAS] Substudy).

Lund BP, et al.   Am J Cardiol 2010;105:1456

(A greater BMI was associated with the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with asymptomatic

Aortic Stenosis, independent of AS severity and the presence of hypertension)

Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction. A Case-Control Study of 26,903 Subjects From 52 Countries.

Mente A, et al.   J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:2390

(In this large-scale, multi-ethnic, international investigation, the risk of Metabolic Syndrome on Myocardial Infarction is generally comparable to that  conferred by some, but not all, of its component risk factors. The characterization of risk factors, especially continuous variables, as dichotomous will underestimate risk and decrease the magnitude of association between MS and MI)

Joint Effects of Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist-to-Hip Ratio on the Risk of Heart Failure.

Hu G, et al.   Circulation 2010;121:237

(General overweight and general and abdominal obesity are independently associated with an increased risk of Heart  Failure, whereas moderate or high levels of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of HF. The protective effect of physical activity on HF risk is observed at all levels of body mass index)

Left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure in metabolic syndrome and diabetes without overt coronary artery disease--do we need to screen our patients?

Roberts AW, et al.   Diab Vasc Dis Res 2009;6:153

(The aim of this article is to summarise the prevalence of Congestive Heart Failure in people with obesity, hypertension and T2DM, and to review how each co-morbid condition might predispose to and complicate the clinical diagnosis of CHF)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Diabete mellito

Improvement and Emergence of Insulin Restriction in Women With Type 1 Diabetes..

Goebel-Fabbri AE, et al.   Diabetes 2011;34:545

(Findings indicate that fear of weight gain associated with improved blood glucose and problems with diabetes self-care are core issues related to both the emergence and resolution of insulin restriction. Greater attention to these concerns may help treatment teams to better meet the unique treatment needs of women struggling with insulin restriction)

The Relationship Between Plasma Leptin Levels and Chronic Complication in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Sary R, et al   Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2010;8:499

(The work suggest that obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome in T2DM were associated with increased plasma leptin levels. We conclude that plasma leptin levels may not be strongly associated with microangiopathy and macroangiopathy in T2DM individuals)

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: a meta-analysis.

Malik VS, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2477  (Free article)

(In addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. These data provide empirical evidence that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages should be limited to reduce obesity-related risk of chronic metabolic diseases)

Diabetes incidence for all possible combinations of metabolic syndrome components.

Nichols GA, Moler EJ.   Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;90:115

(Diabetes risk increases exponentially with MetS factor count, but varies substantially depending upon which factors are present. Hyperglycemia, regardless of the presence of Metabolic Syndrome, is a much stronger predictor of incident diabetes than MetS without hyperglycemia)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Epidemiologia e prevalenza

Diagnosis of the Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated With Disproportionately High Levels of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Non–Hispanic Black Adolescents. An analysis of NHANES 1999–2008.

DeBoer MD, et al.   Diabetes Care 2011;34:734

(Non–Hispanic black adolescents have a greater differential in hsCRP between those with and those without MetS than the differential in non–Hispanic whites but not that in Hispanics. Therefore, even though MetS has a low prevalence in non–Hispanic blacks, MetS is a particularly good indicator of inflammation in non–Hispanic black adolescents)

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and individual criteria in college students.

Fernandes J, et al.   J Am Coll Health 2011;59:313

(Young adults have and are at risk of developing MetS. Identification of MetS early in life is critical and screening young adults will aid in targeted intervention development to decrease CHD risk)

Persistent Increase of Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Adults: NHANES III to NHANES 1999–2006.

Mozumdar A, et al.   Diabetes Care 2011;34:216

(The persistent increase of MetSyn among U.S. adults is a serious public health concern because it raises the likelihood of increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes)

Hypertension alone or related to the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

Nuzzo A, et al.   Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2010;8:1541

(Hypertension can be considered an isolated disease, more typical of elderly women, or part of the metabolic syndrome, more frequent in early postmenopausal women. The metabolic syndrome, a clustering of lipid and nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors, is estimated to affect approximately 20-30% of the middle-aged population and its prevalence appears to be increasing in the worldwide population)

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in Six Middle Eastern Countries.

Al Suwaidi J, et al.   J Clin Hypertens 2010;12:890

(Metabolic Syndrome is highly prevalent among Middle Eastern patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome. MetS is associated with higher-risk profile characteristics and increased risk for development of heart failure and recurrent myocardial ischemia without an increase in hospital mortality)

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in Six Middle Eastern Countries.

Al Suwaidi J, et al.   J Clin Hypertens 2010;12:890

(Metabolic Syndrome is highly prevalent among Middle Eastern patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome. MetS is associated with higher-risk profile characteristics and increased risk for development of heart failure and recurrent myocardial ischemia without an increase in hospital mortality)

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Workers.

Davila EP, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2390

(There is variability in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by occupational status, with “transportation/material moving” workers at greatest risk for metabolic syndrome. Workplace health promotion programs addressing risk factors for metabolic syndrome that target workers in occupations with the greatest odds may be an efficient way to reach at-risk populations)

The Oslo Health Study: Soft drink intake is associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Hostmark AT.   Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2010;35:635

(The self-reported intake frequency of soft drinks can be positively associated with Metabolic Syndrome)

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome based on a harmonious definition among adults in the US*.

Ford ES, et al.   J Diabetes 2010;2:180

(Using waist circumference thresholds of ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.3% among all adults, 36.1% among men, and 32.4% among women. Metabolic syndrome continues to be highly prevalent among adults in the US)

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in two main types of primary aldosteronism.

Somloova Z, et al.   J Human Hypertens 2010;24:625

(Metabolic profile of patients with bilateral form of Primary Aldosteronism (because of Idiopatic Hyperaldosteronism is similar to essential hypertension in contrast to unilateral form of PA (Aldosterone-Producing adenoma)

Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

Scholze J, et al.   BMC Public Health 2010;10:529

(The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden and costs are likely to increase in the future due to an aging population and an increase in the prevalence of components of metabolic syndrome)

Prevalence of obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in the United States: findings from the GE centricity electronic medical record database.

Crawford AG, et al.   Popul Health Manag 2010;13:151

(The results reported herein contribute to the growing literature about the adverse effects of obesity on chronic disease prevalence and about the potential value of electronic medical record data to elucidate trends in disease prevalence and facilitate longitudinal analyses)

Using glycosylated hemoglobin to define the metabolic syndrome in United States adults.

Ong KL, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:1856

(Using glycosylated hemoglobin instead of fasting plasma gucose to define Metabolic Syndrome is feasible. It also identifies individuals with increased cardiovascular risk)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Fattore di rischio

Age and Sex Differences in the Clustering of Metabolic Syndrome Factors: association with mortality risk.

Kuk J, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2457

(Metabolic syndrome is a heterogeneous entity with age and sex variation in component clusters that may have important implications for interpreting the association between metabolic syndrome and mortality risk. Thus, metabolic syndrome used as a whole may mask important differences in assessing health and mortality risk)

Impact of the different components of the metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular risk.

Donfrancesco C, et al.   G Ital Cardiol 2010;11 (5 Suppl):37S

(Dalle analisi presentate risulta che, sia per gli uomini che per le donne, un’alta proporzione dei casi di SM è identificata da 4 delle 16 possibili combinazioni dei fattori di rischio, con hazard ratio tra 1.21 e 1.70. In tutte e quattro le combinazioni è presente la PA, uno dei più forti ed altamente prevalenti fattori di rischio per le malattie CV)

Sex, menopause, metabolic syndrome, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality--cohort analysis from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Lin JW, et al.   J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:4258

(Metabolic syndrome poses a significant increase in mortality risk through an observation period as long as 12 yr, primarily in postmenopausal women, that is not apparent in men and premenopausal women. Sex is an important effect modifier of all-cause and cause-specific death)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Fisiopatologia

Perivascular adipose tissue as a cause of atherosclerosis.

Verhagen SN, et al.   Atherosclerosis 2011; 214:3

(Perivascular adipose tissue surrounds (coronary) arteries and may be involved in local stimulation of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Epicardial adipose tissue, the adipose tissue within the pericardium, is a frequently used measure of coronary perivascular adipose tissue and can be quantified with echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The quantity of (coronary) perivascular adipose tissue is correlated with parameters of the metabolic syndrome, such as increased waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia, and with coronary atherosclerosis. Coronary artery segments covered by myocardium are not exposed to coronary perivascular adipose tissue and interestingly, atherosclerosis is absent in these intra-myocardial segments. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines are expressed and secreted at a higher level in epicardial adipose tissue of patients with coronary artery disease compared to patients without coronary artery disease. Furthermore, in vitro and ex vivo perivascular adipose tissue induces inflammation of the artery wall by secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins. Atherogenesis in the vascular wall is thus stimulated from ‘outside to inside’. Based on the results of clinical, ex vivo and in vitro studies, it can be argued that perivascular adipose tissue may be involved in the process of atherosclerosis)

Iatrogenic hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and metaanalysis.

Ntaios G, et al.   Atherosclerosis 2011;214:11

(Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and its management incorporates hypolipidemic, antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs. However, several classes of these drugs, such as biguanides, fibrates and hydrochlorothiazide have been reported to raise circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) levels. During the last decades, numerous large-scale epidemiological studies have identified Hcy as a moderate independent cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, drug-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in MetS patients may add one cardiovascular risk factor in these high-risk patients. The present systematic review summarizes data from studies which investigated the effects of the above-mentioned drugs on tHcy, and calculates the treatment effect of each drug class on tHcy levels. We also discuss the underlying pathophysiology and the issues that should be addressed in the future)

Leptin receptor-induced STAT3-indipendent signaling pathways are protective against atherosclerosis in a murine model of obesity and hyperlipemia.

Luo W, et al.   Atherosclerosis 2011;214:81

(In a mouse model of obesity and hyperlipidemia, leptin receptor-mediated STAT3-independent signaling pathways confer protection against atherosclerosis. These differences occur independently of leptin effects on energy balance)

Inflammatory markers and cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome.

Espinola-Klein C, et al.   Front Biosci 2011;16:1663

(The visceral adipose tissue is not only an energy depot but also an endocrine organ which produces a large number of bioactive molecules, the so called adipokines. In the setting of obesity, the over-production of proinflammatory and pro-thrombotic adipokines is associated with insulin resistance. This mechanism represents the pathophysiological basis for the development of MetS. Inflammation has a central role in the pathogenesis of MetS and in mediating its impact on the development of cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of these mechanisms has relevance in the context of preventive and therapeutic strategies)

Adiponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.

Pyrzak B, et al.   Eur J Med Res 2010;15 Suppl 2:147

(Adipokines such as leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, adipsin, visfatin, and adiponectin are biologically active molecules produced by adipose tissue. They play a role in energy homeostasis, and in glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin level, unlike that of other adipocytokines, is decreased in obesity and increased after weight reduction. Adiponectin has been associated with both central obesity and increased visceral adipose tissue and it has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and potent insulin-sensitizing (anti-diabetic) effects

Emerging role of adipokines as mediators in atherosclerosis.

Zhang H, et al.   World J Cardiol 2010;2:370

(Recent studies demonstrate the proinflammatory effects as well as atherogenic properties of adipokines. Adipokines also participate in the regulation of endothelial function, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. By contrast, adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and vascular protective effects. Furthermore, there is an interactive association among adipokines, by which adipokines reciprocally regulate each other's expression. Understanding this interplay may reveal plausible mechanisms for treating atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease by modulating adipokine(s) expression. In this review, we discuss insights into the role and the therapeutic potential of adipokines as mediators of atherosclerosis)

Antioxidants, Trace Elements and Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly Subjects.

Pizent A, et al.   J Nutr Health Aging 2010;14:886

(The work suggest that whole blood Glutation Peroxidase and C-reactive Protein, as biomarkers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, respectively, have significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome)

Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Adulthood Metabolic Syndrome, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus but Is No Better Than Body Mass Index Alone.The Bogalusa Heart Study and the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Magnussen CG, et al.   Circulation 2010;122:1604

(Youth with Metabolic Syndrome are at increased risk of meaningful adult outcomes;however, the simplicity of screening for high Body Mass Index or overweightand obesity in the pediatric setting offers a simpler, equallyaccurate alternative to identifying youth at risk of developingadult MetS, high cIMT, or T2DM)

DNA Damage Links Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Atherosclerosis and the Metabolic Syndrome.

Mercer JR, et al.   Circ Res 2010;107:1021

(The work propose that failure of DNA repair generates defects in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This in turn leads to ketosis, hyperlipidemia, and increased fat storage, promoting atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome. Prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a novel target in cardiovascular disease)

Angiogenesis and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome.

Siervo M, et al.   J Intern Med 2010;268:338

(The increase incirculating levels of biomarkers of angiogenesis and cardiac function in subjects with Metabolic Syndrome mirrors the pathophysiological changes occurring in the cardiovascular system. Over time, these changes might accelerate the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques and contribute significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk)

Television Viewing Time and Mortality. The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

Dunstan DW, et al   Circulation 2010;121:384

(Television viewing time was associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and all-cause and CVD mortality).

Hypoadiponectinemia is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in korean type 2 diabetes patients.

Ryu HK, et al.   J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29:171

(The work show that hypoadiponectinemia is strongly associated with Metabolic Syndrome in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. Dietary intake may be indirectly associated with adiponectin levels through factors such as BMI, waist circumference, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure. Therefore, our results suggest that manipulation of the level of adiponectin may prevent MetS and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 DM patients)

At the crossroad between immunity and metabolism: focus on leptin.

Conde J, et al.   Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2010;6:801

(Conditions characterized by low leptin levels are associated with increased susceptibility to infection. Conversely, immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, are associated with increased secretion of leptin and the production of proinflammatory pathogenic cytokines. Thus, leptin can easily be considered a frank mediator of the inflammatory/immune response)

Circulating oxidized low-density lipoproteins and arterial elasticity: comparison between men with metabolic syndrome and physically active counterparts.

Pohjantahti-Maaroos H, et al.   Cardiovasc Diabetol 2010;9:41

(Subjects with metabolic syndrome had elevated levels of oxidized LDL and reduced large arterial elasticity compared to controls. This finding may partly explain the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases among metabolic syndrome patients)

Adipokines and cardiometabolic function: How are they interlinked?

Schutte AE, et al.   Regul Pept 2010;164:133

(Factor analyses identified patterns which indicate specific roles of the various adipokines. Leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were more closely related to insulin resistance and central obesity as core components of the metabolic syndrome. Visfatin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and resistin seem to direct their effects onto the vascular system possibly by means of mechanisms such as inflammation, vasoconstriction and coagulation)

Cross-sectional relationship between alcohol consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women.

Wakabayashi I.   J Atheroscler Thromb 2010;17:695

(Light drinking is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women, while very heavy drinking is thought to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese men)

Obesity, overweight, and weight gain over adult life are main determinants of elevated hs-CRP in a cohort of Mediterranean women.

Gentile M, et al   Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:873

(The independent relations between different markers of overweight/obesity and elevated hs-CRP consistently indicate that high (above 1.5 mg l(-1), median) hs-CRP is a major biochemical counterpart of cross-sectional or longitudinal estimates of increased adipose tissue mass)

The renin angiotensin system and the metabolic syndrome.

de Kloet AD, et al.   Physiol Behav 2010;100:525

(This review summarizes what is known of the actions of the RAS in the brain and throughout the body to influence various metabolic disorders. Special emphasis is given to the role of the rennin angiotensin system in body weight regulation)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Insulino Resistenza

Is insulin resistance a disorder of the brain?

Das UN, et al.   Front Biosci 2011;16:1

(There is reasonable evidence to suggest that insulin resistance may have its origins in the hypothalamus. Insulin secretion is regulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and modulates the concentrations of hypothalamic neuropeptides and monoaminergic neurotransmitters, and, in return, hypothalamic monoamines regulate the secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. A lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus produces all the features of the metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. These and other evidence suggest that insulin resistance may very well be a disease of the brain)

Insulin resistance in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with C-reactive protein independent of abdominal obesity.

Lu B, et al.   Cardiovasc Diabetol   2010;19:92

(These findings showed that insulin resistance was associated with CRP levels independent of abdominal obesity in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that abdominal obesity could only partly explain the link between subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance)

Insulin resistance in obesity as the underlying cause for the metabolic syndrome.

Gallagher EJ, et al.   Mt Sinai J Med 2010;77:511

(This review  discuss normal insulin signaling and the mechanisms by which insulin resistance contributes to the development of the metabolic syndrome)

Obesity and insulin resistance: an ongoing saga.

Kim SH, Reaven G.   Diabetes 2010;59:2105

(Editorial to the article by Kursave)

The impact of insulin resistance on woman's health and potential treatment options.

Lois K, et al.   Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010;1205:156

(The scope of this article is to cast light on the detrimental effects of insulin resistance on metabolism and the body systems in women as well as to highlight the current therapeutic approach, drugs in progress, and future therapeutic perspectives)

Predictors of insulin resistance in the obese with metabolic syndrome.

Manu P, et al.   Eur J Intern Med 2010;21:409

(Insulin resistance is not an obligatory correlate of Metabolic Syndrome in the obese. Its likelihood can be predicted by cigarette smoking and by the severity of obesity and dyslipidemia)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Ipertensione Arteriosa

Dietary fructose, salt absorption and hypertension in metabolic syndrome: towards a new paradigm.

Soleimani M.   Acta Physiol 2011;201:55

(This article will discuss the interaction of Glut5 with salt-absorbing transporters and review the role of dietary fructose in enhanced salt absorption in intestine and kidney as it relates to the pathogenesis of hypertension in metabolic syndrome)

Prognostic relevance of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients at low-to-medium risk

Pierdomenico SD, et al.   Am J Hypertens 2010;20:1291

(Hypertensive patients at low-to-medium risk with Metabolic Syndrome are at higher cardiovascular risk than those without MS. MS may be a useful tool for clinicians to identify subjects at increased risk when traditional assessment may indicate low-medium risk)

Time to achieve blood pressure goal with a combination versus a conventional monotherapy approach in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

Fogari R, et al.   Clin Exp Hypertens 2010;32:245

(The results suggest that initial therapy with a Valsartan/Amlodipin combination approach may be more quickly effective than a conventional sequential monotherapy approach in achieving target blood pressure in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome)

Serum phosphate in white-coat hypertensive patients: focus on dipping status and metabolic syndrome.

Vyssoulis G, et al.   Hypertens Res 2010;33:825

(Patients with White-Coat Hypertension and low serum phosphate levels appear to have a higher incidence of a non-dipping NSBP profile and an impaired metabolic profile. This observation may be important for the stratification of the cardiovascular risk in WCH patients)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Lipidi

Efficacy and tolerability of extended-release niacin/laropiprant in dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome.

Bays HE, et al   J Clin Lipidol 2010;4:515

(In patients with Metabolic Syndrome,extended release niacin/laropiprant  improves multiple lipid parameters associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. ERN/LRPT numerically improved triglyceride levels more in patients with versus without MS, which is likely related to greater baseline triglycerides in MS patients)

Low HDL-Cholesterol with Normal Triglyceride Levels is the Most Common Lipid Pattern in West Africans and African Americans with Metabolic Syndrome: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

Sumner AE, et al.   CVD Prev Control 2010;5:75

(Elevated triglyceride levels were uncommon in both West Africans (WA) and African-Americans (AA) with Metabolic Syndrome. As the relative absence of hypertriglyceridemia is associated with a lack of efficacy of MetSyn in AA, caution is warranted in diagnosing MetSyn in WA, the ancestral population of AA. Prospective studies are necessary to determine if an ethnic-specific reformulation of the MetSyn scoring system for lipids might optimize risk identification in black populations)

Regional impact of adipose tissue morphology on the metabolic profile in morbid obesity.

Hoffstedt J, et al   Diabetologia 2010;53:2496

(In morbidly obese women region-specific variations in mean adipocyte size are associated with metabolic complications but not systemic or adipose inflammation. Large fat cells in the visceral region are linked to dyslipidaemia, whereas large subcutaneous adipocytes are important for glucose and insulin abnormalities. Hyperplasia (many small adipocytes) in both adipose regions may be protective against lipid as well as glucose/insulin abnormalities in obesity)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Obesità

Impact of BMI and the Metabolic Syndrome on the Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged Men.

Arnlov J, et al.   Diabetes Care 2011;34:61

(Overweight or obese men without metabolic syndrome were at increased risk for diabetes. Our data provide further evidence that overweight and obesity in the absence of the metabolic syndrome should not be considered a harmless condition)

Open questions about metabolically normal obesity.

Pataky Z, et al   Int J Obes 2010;34:S18

(Subsets of obese subjects without any cardiometabolic risk factors have been repeatedly described. This raises questions whether obesity 'per se' enhances the risk for cardiovascular or metabolic diseases and whether healthy obese subjects would benefit from a medical treatment. Data from the literature strongly suggest that a regular surveillance of the cardiometabolic parameters and a prevention of any further weight gain should be applied to healthy obese individuals, whereas possible benefits of a weight loss treatment are still a matter of debate)

Clinical diagnosis of metabolic and cardiovascular risks in overweight children: early development of chronic diseases in the obese child.

L’allemand-Jander D.   Int J Obes 2010;34:S32

(Risk factors are found in more than half of the overweight children, most frequently high blood pressure or dyslipidemia, and were mainly related to waist circumference, but also to BMI and fat mass. Even in the presence of normal BMI, screening for cardiovascular risk factors is advocated in each child with elevated waist circumference, but its cut-off points still remain to be validated. The increased occurrence of orthopedic and psychiatric complaints may detrimentally influence health-related lifestyle and obesity therapy)

Body-Mass Index and Mortality among 1.46 Million White Adults.

Berrington de Gonzalez A, et al.   N Egl J Med  2010;363:2211

(In white adults, overweight and obesity (and possibly underweight) are associated with increased all-cause mortality. All-cause mortality is generally lowest with a BMI of 20.0 to 24.9)

Regional impact of adipose tissue morphology on the metabolic profile in morbid obesity.

Hoffstedt J, et al   Diabetologia 2010;53:2496

(In morbidly obese women region-specific variations in mean adipocyte size are associated with metabolic complications but not systemic or adipose inflammation. Large fat cells in the visceral region are linked to dyslipidaemia, whereas large subcutaneous adipocytes are important for glucose and insulin abnormalities. Hyperplasia (many small adipocytes) in both adipose regions may be protective against lipid as well as glucose/insulin abnormalities in obesity)

Relation between obesity and the attainment of optimal blood pressure and lipid targets in high vascular risk outpatients.

Bhan V, et al.   Am J Cardiol 2010;106:1270

(Only a minority ambulatory patients at high cardiovascular risk achieved both guideline-recommended blood pressure and lipid targets, and this significant treatment gap was more pronounced among obese patients. Our findings underscore the opportunity to optimize the treatment of these high-risk patients)

Overall Diet History and Reversibility of the Metabolic Syndrome Over 5 Years: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

Akbaraly TN, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2339

(Our findings support the benefit of adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Inex dietary guidelines for individuals with Metabolic Syndrome, especially those with central obesity or high triglyceride levels)

A personalized approach to metabolic aspects of obesity.

Brietzke SA.   Mt Sinai J Med 2010;77:499

(Alternative metabolic states of the adipocyte are characterized in this review as metabolic "yin" and "yang." Lifestyle modifications and drug therapies that promote weight loss, increased physical exercise activity, and increased adiponectin production tend to modulate the system favorably toward metabolic "yin.")

Visceral fat accumulation and metabolic risk factor clustering in older adults.

Nomura K, et al.   J Am Geriatr Soc 2010;58:1658

(Visceral fat accumulation is associated with metabolic risk factor clustering even in the elderly population. These results have clinical implications for the managementof obesity in older adults)

Prevalence, Distribution, and Risk Factor Correlates of High Pericardial and Intrathoracic Fat Depots in the Framingham Heart Study.

Thanassoulis G, et al.   Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2010;3:559

(Although prevalence of pericardial fat and intrathoracic fatwere comparable at 30%, intrathoracic fat correlated more closelywith metabolic risk and visceral fat. Intrathoracic fat maybe a potential marker of metabolic risk and visceral fat onthoracic imaging)

Body mass index and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction in a relatively lean population. Meta-analysis of 16 Japanese cohorts using individual data.

Yatsuya H, et al.   Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010;3:498

(Overweight/obesity was associated with an increased risk ofcerebral infarction and hemorrhage in men and women and myocardialinfarction in men. Weight control may have the potential toprevent both stroke and myocardial infarction in Japan)

Cellularity and adipogenic profile of the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese adolescents: association  with insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

Kursawe R, et al.   Diabetes 2010;59:2288

(A reduced lipo-/adipogenic capacity, fraction, and estimated number of large subcutaneous adipocytes may contribute to the abnormal distribution of abdominal fat and hepatic steatosis, as well as to insulin resistance in obese adolescents)Associations of Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat Areas With the Prevalence of Metabolic Risk Factor Clustering in 6,292 Japanese Individuals: The Hitachi Health Study.

Matsushita Y, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2117

(The workdemonstrated a superior performance of visceral fat area to predict the clustering of metabolic risk factors compared with other anthropometric indexes)

Effects of Weight Loss Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Men and Women.

Janiszewski PM, Ross R.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:1957

(Lifestyle-induced weight loss among MHO subjects is associated with a reduction in total and abdominal obesity and improvement in selected cardio-metabolic risk factors)

Carotid Intima-media thickness in childhood and adolescent obesity relations to abdominal obesity, high triglyceride level and insulin resistance.

Fang J, et al.   Int J Med Sci 2010;18:278

(Obesity especially abdominal obesity, high TG and insulin resistance may be the main risk predictors of increased intima-media thickness in children and adolescents)

Waist circumference as the predominant contributor to the micro-inflammatory response in the metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional study.

Rogowski O, et al. J Inflamm 2010;7:35

(From amongst the various components of the MetS, waist circumference appears to exert the most influence upon the presence and intensity of the micro-inflammatory response)

Artery remodeling and abdominal adiposity in nonobese postmenopausal women.

Montalcini T, et al.   Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:1022

(Brachial Artery Diameter, a surrogate measure of cardiovascular disease, was correlated to Waist-to-Hip Ratio in nonobese population; therefore, nonobese women with high WHR should be carefully considered because of a possible worse cardiovascular risk profile)

Metabolic, renal, and nutritional consequences of bariatric surgery: implications for the clinician.

Chauhan V, et al.   South Med J 2010;103:775

(Metabolic effects of bariatric surgery reduce obesity-related comorbidities like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk. Improvement in renal function is seen, but adverse effects like oxalate nephropathy can lead to chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease (CKD/ESRD). Surgery can also lead to micronutrient deficiencies, making dietary supplementation necessary. Reduction in insulin resistance and hypertension after surgery makes medication adjustment imperative)

Metabolic syndrome and ectopic fat deposition: what can CT and MR provide?

Meng K, et al.   Acad Radiol 2010;17:1302

(Many of the multisystem manifestations of metabolic syndrome can be visualized on routine CT and MR images and radiologists can provide clinicians with important data regarding anatomic and pathologic distribution of fat in different organs. Perhaps the visualization of the fatty changes will provide tangible evidence to motivate patients to begin lifestyle modification)

Impact of body mass index on the relationship of epicardial adipose tissue to metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in an Asian population.

Park JS, et al.   Cardiovasc Diabetol 2010;7:9

(While Epicardial Adipose Tissue  thickness was significantly increased in patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Coronary Artery Disease, the power of EAT thickness to predict MS and CAD was stronger in patients with BMI < 27 kg/m2. These findings showed that the measurement of EAT thickness by echocardiography might be especially useful in an Asian population with a non-high BMI, less than 27 kg/m2)

Impact of Abdominal Obesity on Incidence of Adverse Metabolic Effects Associated With Antihypertensive Medications.

Cooper-DeHoff RM, et al.   Hypertension 2010;55:61

(Development of adverse metabolic effect, including new-onset diabetes mellitus associated with short-term exposure to hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol was more common in those with abdominal obesity


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Patologie associate

The metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.

Garcia-Lara JM, et al.   Rev Invest Clin 2010;62:343

(The MS is a clinical entity that encompasses a diverse range of chronic diseases, which could be a better risk indicator than any individual MS component for adverse health outcomes, like AD. Our findings underscore the harmful role of MS in the health status of the elderly)

Sleep loss and inflammation.

Mullington JM, et al.   Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;24:775

(Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24h, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8h sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-clinical shifts in basal inflammatory cytokines are known to be associated with the future development of metabolic syndrome disease in healthy, asymptomatic individuals. Although the mechanism of this altered inflammatory status in humans undergoing experimental sleep loss is unknown, it is likely that autonomic activation and metabolic changes play key roles)

Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and chronic allograft dysfunction.

Porrini E, et al.   Kidney Int 2010;78 (S119):S42

(Metabolic Syndrome has been shown to be an independent risk factor for chronic allograft dysfunction, graft failure, new-onset diabetes, and CV disease. MS and insulin resistance are important modifiable risk factors in renal transplant recipients, and prompt interventions to avoid its deleterious effects at the metabolic, CV, and graft function levels are needed)

Sleep symptoms predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

Troxel WM, et al.   Sleep 2010;33:1633

(Difficulty falling asleep, unrefreshing sleep, and, particularly, loud snoring, predicted the development of metabolic syndrome in community adults. Evaluating sleep symptoms can help identify individuals at risk for developing metabolic syndrome)

Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cognition.

Cavalieri M, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2489

(Metabolic syndrome exerts detrimental effects on memory and executive functioning in community-dwelling subjects who have not had a clinical stroke or do not have dementia. Men are more affected than women, particularly if they have high inflammatory markers. MRI-detected brain abnormalities do not play a crucial role in these relationships)

Association of cognitive performance with the metabolic syndrome and with glycaemia in middle-aged and older European men: the European Male Ageing Study.

Tournoy J, et al.   Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2010;26:668

(Metabolic syndrome was not associated with cognitive impairment in this population. Of the individual components of the syndrome, diabetes was associated with poorer performances in memory, executive functions and processing speed, associations that warrant further investigation)

Association between airflow obstruction and the metabolic syndrome or its components in Japanese men.

Funakoshi Y, et al.   Intern Med 2010;49:2093   (Free Article)

(Airflow obstruction of GOLD guideline stage II-IV might be associated with Metabolic Syndrome, waist circumference and blood pressure components in Japanese men)

Insulin resistance and risk of  Ischemic stroke among nondiabetic individuals from the northern Manhattan study.

Rundek T, et al.   Arch Neurol 2010;67:1195

(Insulin resistance estimated using the HOMA is a marker of increased risk of incident stroke in nondiabetic individuals. These findings emphasize the need to better characterize individuals at increased risk for insulin resistance and the potential role of primary preventive therapies targeted at insulin resistance)

Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease.

Ruan X, Guan Y.   J Diabetes 2010;1:236

(In this review we will discuss the association of Metabolic Syndrome with insulin resistance and Chronic Kidney Disease, and the renal pathophysiological changes associated with MetS)

Pathophysiological links between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

Mugnai G.   G Ital Cardiol 2010;11:453

(Some subjects with metabolic syndrome can be affected by undiagnosed OSA: CPAP treatment could significantly reduce cardiovascular risk in this subgroup of patients)

Consequences of comorbid sleep apnea in the metabolic syndrome--implications for cardiovascular risk.

Trobetta IC, et al   Sleep 2010;33:1193

(Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and comorbid Obstructive Sleep Apnea  have higher BP, higher sympathetic drive, and diminished baroreflex sensitivity, compared with patients with M S without OSA. These adverse cardiovascular and autonomic consequences of OSA may be associated with poorer outcomes in these patients. Moreover, increased BP and sympathetic drive in patients with M S+OSA may be linked, in part, to impairment of baroreflex gain)

Usefulness of microalbuminuria in patients with the metabolic syndrome to predict subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease outcomes.

Afonso L, et al.   Am J Cardiol 2010;106:976

(The metabolic syndrome plus microalbuminuria group showed a consistently stronger association with the markers of systemic inflammation, subclinical atherosclerosis, and most clinical end points compared to the other study groups. In conclusion, stratification by microalbuminuria can help identify a high-risk subset of nondiabetic patients with the metabolic syndrome)

The impact of obstructive sleep apnea on metabolic and inflammatory markers in consecutive patients with metabolic syndrome.

Drager LF, et al.   PLoS One 2010;11:e12065

(Unrecognized Obstructive Sleep Apnea is common in consecutive patients with Metabolic Syndrome. OSA may contribute to metabolic dysregulation and systemic inflammation in patients with MetS, regardless of symptoms of daytime sleepiness)

Metabolic syndrome and arterial pulse wave velocity

Kim KJ, et al.   Acta Cardiol   2010;65:315

(Metabolic syndrome is associated with arterial stiffness by arterial pulse wave velocity. Monitoring of arterial pulse wave velocity in patients with metabolic syndrome may be helpful in identifying persons at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis)

Obesity, visceral fat and Crohn's disease.

Bertin B, et al.   Curr Opin Nutr Metab Care 2010;13:574

(Obesity and Crohn's disease share common features with the development of mesenteric fat that may be involved in gut inflammation)

Weight of the obesity epidemic: rising stroke rates among middle-aged women in the United States.

Towfighi A, et al.   Stroke 2010;41:1371

(Stroke prevalence among women aged 35 to 54 years has tripled over the past 2 decades, at the same time remaining stable among men. Prevalence of obesity and 3 metabolic syndrome components increased; they may be key factors in the increase in women's stroke prevalence)


indice Sindrome Metabolica – Rassegne e metanalisi

Metabolic syndrome: What are the risks for humans?

Gupta A, Gupta V.   Biosci Trends 2010;4:204  (Free Article)

(This article provides a comprehensive discussion of metabolic risk factors, the history of Metabolic Syndrome, and its diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment. There is a need to comprehensively review this particular syndrome in view of the ever increasing-incidence of this condition)

The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mottillo S, et al   J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1132

(The metabolic syndrome is associated with a 2-fold increasein cardiovascular outcomes and a 1.5-fold increase in all-causemortality)

Metabolic syndrome? A critical look from the viewpoints of causal diagrams and statistics.

Shahar E.   J Cardiovasc Med 2010;11:772

(This article sheds new light on the term by using a tool called causal diagrams (also known as causal directed acyclic graphs). Formal analysis according to causal and statistical principles reveals little substance behind the new syndrome, as well as numerous false claims. From a research viewpoint, continued use of a variable called 'metabolic syndrome status' should be discouraged)

A practical approach to the metabolic syndrome: review of current concepts and management.

Tota-Maharaj R, et al.   Curr Opin Cardiol 2010;22:502

(The revised 'ABCDE' approach incorporates the most recent influential studies into a simple yet thorough algorithm for management of the metabolic syndrome)


indice Sindrome Metabolica - Terapia

Comparison of fibrate, ezetimibe, low- and high-dose statin therapy for the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

Paraskevas KL, et al.   Angiology 2011;62:144

(High-dose atorvastatin treatment resulted in optimization of the lipid profile in the presence of a high-fat atherogenic diet in a mouse model. Our results suggest that high-dose atorvastatin treatment may be the optimal treatment option for the dyslipidemia associated with MetS. Nevertheless, verification of these results in humans is required before any definite conclusions can be drawn)

Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Insulin Resistance in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus or the Cardiometabolic Syndrome: Benefits of Vasodilating β-Blockers.

Deedwania P.   J Clin Hypertens 2011;13:52

(Vasodilating β-blockers reduce peripheral vascular resistance but have little effect on cardiac output. Vasodilating β-blockers may therefore result in less impact on insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, a reduced new-onset diabetes risk, and improved dyslipidemia compared with traditional β-blockers. Because of these effects, vasodilating β-blockers may represent a favorable option in the treatment of high-risk patients with hypertension)

Effects of lifestyle interventions on inflammatory markers in the metabolic syndrome.

Beavers KM, et al.   Front Biosci 2011;3:168

(Of six studies assessed, lifestyle interventions were consistently successful at improving the inflammatory and metabolic profiles. Interestingly, improvements in the inflammatory profile were found to be largely independent of obesity. Data currently suggest that alterations in dietary composition may be the most effective lifestyle change, although there is a need for more research in this area)

Underappreciated opportunities for low-density lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic residual risk.

Rosenson RS, et al.   Atherosclerosis 2010;213:1

(For high cardiometabolic risk patients, LDL-P should be considered a primary goal of therapy due to its stronger association with cardiovascular risk. Further, certain lipid-altering therapies may be ∑particularly useful in reducing cardiovascular events in statin-treated patients, not simply due to their improvement in LDL-C goal attainment, but due to their effects on lowering the number of low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL-P).

A 1-Year Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Reduces High C-Reactive Protein Levels and Identifies Metabolic Predictors of Change: From the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study

Belalcazar LM, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2297

(A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in obese individuals with diabetes was associated with substantial reductions in hs-CRP. Improved glycemic control and reduced adiposity had comparable effects on hs-CRP change)

Effects of Diet and Physical Activity Interventions on Weight Loss and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adults: A Randomized Trial.

Goodpaster BH, et al.   JAMA 2010;304:1795

(Among patients with severe obesity, a lifestyleintervention involving diet combined with initial or delayedinitiation of physical activity resulted in clinically significantweight loss and favorable changes in cardiometabolic risk factors)

Pleiotropic Effects of Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate in Metabolic Syndrome and Different Types of Pre-Diabetes.

Krysiak R, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2266

(The presence of pre-diabetes potentiates metabolic syndrome–induced abnormalities in plasma markers of inflammation and hemostasis and in monocyte secretory function. Both atorvastatin and fenofibrate exhibit multidirectional pleiotropic effects in subjects with metabolic syndrome, the strength of which seem to be partially determined by the type of pre-diabetes)

Long-term efficacy and safety of ezetimibe/simvastatin coadministred with extended-release niacin in hyperlipidaemic patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Guyton FS, et al.   Diabetes Obes Metab 2010;12:983

(Combination Ezetimibe/Simvastatin+Niacin is a safe treatment option for hyperlipidaemic patients including those with Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome, but requires monitoring of glucose and potentially uric acid levels. Combination increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein)

Do angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers prevent diabetes mellitus? A meta-analysis.

Al-Mallah M, et al   Cardiol J 2010;17:448  (Free article)

(The cumulative evidence suggests that the use of ACEI/ARB prevents diabetes mellitus. This finding may be of special clinical benefit in patients with hypertension and prediabetes or metabolic syndrome).

The Effects of Fenofibric Acid Alone and With Statins on the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Diagnostic Components in Patients With Mixed Dyslipidemia.

Bays HE, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2113

(Fenofibric acid plus statin in patients with mixed dyslipidemia reduces the prevalence of metabolic syndrome)

The role of vasodilating beta-blockers in patients with hypertension and the cardiometabolic syndrome.

Taylor AA, Bakris GL.   Am J Med 2010;123 (Suppl 1);S21

(Data on vasodilating beta-blockers, however, suggest that these agents have favorable or neutral metabolic effects and generally more favorable effects when compared with nonvasodilating members of this class. These agents may expand the utility of beta-blockers to patient populations traditionally considered not to be optimal candidates for beta-blocker therapy)

A low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids alters the postprandial lipoprotein profile in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Jiménez-Gomez Y, et al.   J Nutr 2010;140:1595

(The adverse postprandial TG-raising effects of long-term Low-Fat, High-Complex Carbohydrate diets may be avoided by concomitant Long-Chain (n-3) PUFA supplementation to weight-stable MetS patients)

Fibrates: no ACCORD on their use in the treatment of dyslipidaemia

Wierzbicki AS.   Curr Opin Lipidol 2010;21:352

(Fenofibrate and bezafibrate are reasonable second-line therapies for dyslipidaemia and in diabetes. They are safe in combination therapy with statins but add little endpoint benefit except possibly in patients with a significant degree of atherogenic dyslipidaemia (high triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol). The benefits of fibrates on microvascular disease remain to be fully explored)

The protective role of the mediterranean diet on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a population of greek obese subjects.

Paletas K, et al.   J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29:41

(Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be declining among Greek overweight and obese subjects, a phenomenon that is associated with an increase in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome)

The effects of fenofibric acid alone and with statins on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its diagnostic components in patients with mixed dyslipidemia

Bays HE, et al.   Diabetes Care 2010;33:2113

(Fenofibric acid plus statin in patients with mixed dyslipidemia reduces the prevalence of metabolic syndrome)

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